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Custom Nissan Skyline

The Nissan Skyline is a range of compact size cars. The GT-R version is dubbed "Godzilla" by Wheels magazine in Australia when released there in 1989, it was rated by many motoring magazines, including the well-respected Wheels, as providing performance and handling equal or superior to that of European icons like the Porsche 911 and the Ferrari Testarossa, at a considerably lower price. The Skyline's home-market competitors have included the Acura NSX, Toyota Supra, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, Subaru Impreza WRX STi, and Mazda RX-7. The Skyline R34 was officially rated with 276 horsepower, but other sources estimated it to actually produce around 300-330 horsepower.

Main article: Nissan GT-R

The Skyline moniker has been dropped for the fifth generation GTR model. Officially, the Skyline name will be gracing the JDM version of the Infiniti G35 and G37. The new car is tapped to be named the GT-R and is slated to officially debut at 2007 Tokyo Motor Show. The new model is significant in many aspects, not least of which being that it will feature a radical new styling that breaks from the Skyline tradition of wearing a very conservative, understated and unassuming sheetmetal. However, the most significant aspect about this new model is that it will be the first "Skyline" to be sold in the very lucrative and Skyline-hungry US domestic market.


5th Generation (C210) (1977-1981)Edit

800px-Nissan Skyline C211 2000 GT-EL 001

The succeeding C210/211 and GC210/211 of 1977 continued to split the Skyline range into basic and six-cylinder models, the latter with a longer wheelbase and front end. This line continued through 1981. A rare variant would be the wagon version, which had a unique styling treatment behind the rear doors, of a much smaller window than usual between the C and D pillars. The Skyline received an internal and external facelift in late 1978, which led to a change of the model code from 210 to 211. This was also when the Skyline first appeared in several European export markets, such as Germany.

The GT-EX replaced the discontinued GT-R with a turbocharged engine, the L20ET. As installed in the recently renewed Nissan Cedric/Gloria, this had been the first turbo engine to power a Japanese production vehicle. One notable aspect of the turbo versions was that they were not intercooled and there was no form of blowoff valve, only an emergency pressure release valve. As usual with Japanese cars of this period, there were four- or five-speed manuals and a three-speed automatic, with a column-shifted three-speed manual available on lower end cars and vans.

The "T" designation on the L16T and L18T does not signify a turbocharger was included; it denotes that those engines came with twin carburetors. The L-series engines were all switched to the cross-flow Z-series in late 1978. The larger 2.4 litre inline-six was never offered in the domestic Japanese market; having been reserved for export. Export engines were rated in DIN horsepower, so while a Japanese-spec L24 promised 130 ponies, European market cars with the same engine only claimed 113 PS (83 kW). On the other hand, European buyers could also get the fuel injected L24E with 127 or 130 PS (93 or 96 kW) DIN, about on par with what the turbocharged GT-EX offered.

Originally marketed as the Datsun 240K-GT in Europe, the fuel injected version was sold as the Datsun Skyline in most markets where it was available. It has a claimed top speed of 186 km/h (116 mph).  In June 1980 the two-liter, fuel injected inline-four Z20E engine was added to the lineup, as was the 2.8 liter straight-six GT-Diesel with 91 PS (67 kW).

6th Generation (R30) (1981-1985)Edit

R30

The names were brought into line with the home Japanese and worldwide markets with the launch of the R30 series in August 1981, which was built on a C31 Laurel platform. Unlike preceding generations, four- and six-cylinder versions now shared a front end of the same length. The R30 was available as a two-door hardtop coupe, a four-door sedan, a five-door hatchback (available only in the R30 generation), or a four-door station wagon. In all, there were 26 variations of the R30 Skyline available.

All versions with the exception of the wagon were usually fitted with the four round tail lights that had become a regular feature to the Skyline's design. The wagon had different tail lights, headlights, and no turbocharger or six-cylinder versions available. It more closely resembled a Nissan Sunny than a Skyline. The two-door coupé had a hardtop, pillarless design, and featured roll-down quarter windows for the rear seat passengers (a styling feature of the previous C10, C110, and C211 coupes), while four-door versions had a traditional sedan body style with framed windows.

Notably, configurations of the R30 sold in Australia and New Zealand were missing the traditional hotplate tail lights, instead opting for more conventional styling. Export markets also received some larger (albeit less powerful) engines, in the form of 2.4 and a 2.8 liter inline-sixes of 120 PS (88 kW) or 139 PS (102 kW). The 2.8 was added in September 1982.

Various engine configurations were available, initially ranging from the top of the line 103 kW SOHC 6-cylinder turbo L20ET to the 4-cylinder Z18S and 6-cylinder LD28 diesel versions at the other end of the scale. The all-new 16-valve DOHC FJ20 engine debuted in late 1981, and was the first four-cylinder engine from any Japanese manufacturer to employ more than two valves per cylinder (see below). Some of the top spec models featured adjustable suspension dampers that could be adjusted while driving, this was another first for mass-produced JDM vehicles. Nissan Glorias and Laurels also used the L series engines, as well as some diesel (Laurel only) variants.

The R30 range was facelifted in August 1983 with various changes across the board; for example four-wheel disc brakes were now standard issue, instead of being optional for lower-spec models. Trim specifications were revised and the 4-cylinder Z18S engine was replaced with the newer CA18E. Features included upgraded interior trim, new front and rear bumpers, door-mounted wing mirrors (replacing the old 'hockey stick' fender mirrors), and smoked tail lights.

7th Generation (R31) (1986–1990)Edit

800px-Nissan Skyline R31 2000 GTS-R 002

The R31 Skyline of 1986 was a natural evolution on the R30 shape, and also this one was loosely based on the Laurel platform (C32). The design was slightly larger and squarer than previous Skylines. It was available as a Sedan,  Hardtop sedan, Coupe and station wagon. Affectionately known as the "Seventhsu" or simply "7th Sukairain" by owners, due to it being the 7th generation Skyline.

The R31 Skyline introduced many new technologies and features. The HR31 was the first Skyline to be equipped with the new RB-series of engines. The R31 RB engines are often referred to as "Red Top" engines because of the red cam covers. There were three variants. The earliest series of DOHC RB engines used the NICS (Nissan Induction Control System) injection system with 12 very small intake runners, and a butterfly system to divide the intake ports in half for better low RPM performance. Later versions used ECCS (Electronically Concentrated Control System) engine management, discarded the twelve tiny runners for six much larger ones (though they retained twelve ports on the head, so there was a splitter plate), and received a slightly larger turbocharger. Nissan's RD28, a 2.8 straight-6 engine, introduced Diesel-power to the line-up. Another technological first for the R31 was the introduction of Nissan's proprietary 4-wheel steering system, dubbed HICAS (High Capacity Active Steering). The R31 series were also the only models in the Skyline family to feature a 4-door hardtop variation. These models were generally badged as the Passage GT.

The R31 Skyline was also produced in Australia, with a 3.0 L motor (RB30E) available in sedan or wagon form, as well as a four-cylinder version called the Nissan Pintara. The wagon had the same front style as the coupe and sedan—the only difference being that it lacked the four round brake lights that had been a consistent element of Skyline design. These cars were manufactured in Australia due to the heavy import laws which made it expensive to bring cars into Australia.

8th Generation (R32) (1989–1994)Edit

Nissan Skyline R32 GT-R 001

The R32 Skyline debuted in May 1989. It was available as either a 2-door coupe or 4-door hardtop sedan, all other bodystyles were dropped. The R32 featured several versions of the RB-series straight-6 engines, which had improved heads (the twelve port inlet was gone) and used the ECCS (Electronically Concentrated Control System) injection system. Also available was an 1,800 cc 4-cylinder GXi model. Most models had HICAS four-wheel steering, with the rear wheels being hydraulically linked to the front steering. The 2.5-litre GTS-25 became one of the first Japanese production cars to feature a 5-speed automatic transmission. The GTS-t came in standard and Type M configurations, with the Type M having larger five-stud 16-inch wheels, four piston front callipers and twin piston rears plus other minor differences. ABS was optional (except for the GT-R and GTS-4), mechanical LSD was standard on the GTR and viscous LSD was standard on all turbo models and optional on all but the GXi. Nissan also produced 100 Australian models of the R32. There was also a 4WD version of the GTS-t Type M, called the GTS-4.

This is not the first generation of skyline. It is the second-generation gt-r, or the second to use the "rb" series of engines. It is labled as "R32", and came with rb20et rb20det and 26dett engines. the next two generations were labeled as R33 (which also had the rb25et rb25det and rb26dett)and R34, respectively. The generation before the R32 came with a "rb20det" the first of series engine, and named the "R31".

9th Generation (R33) (1995–1997)Edit

Nissan Skyline R33 GT-R 001

The R33 Skyline was introduced in August 1993. Slightly heavier than the R32, it is available in coupe and sedan bodystyles. All models now used a 6-cylinder engine. Nissan took the unusual step of down-grading the GTS model to have only the RB20E, while the twin-cam of the R32 GTS was discontinued along with the 2.0 L turbo RB20DET.

Some models came equipped with a new version of the HICAS 4-wheel steering system called Super HICAS. This computer controlled system was first used on the R32 GT-R. Super HICAS used electric actuators to steer the rear, as opposed to the hydraulic HICAS. This generation was no longer considered a "compact" under Japanese legislation that determined the amount of tax liability based on exterior dimensions.

As an option, an active limited slip differential was available instead of the standard viscous LSD. This new unit locked the rear differential if it detected that traction was lost by one of the wheels. A light on the dash also lit up if the LSD engaged. Active LSD came standard on all V-Spec R33 GT-R Skylines and was also available on some ECR33 GTS-25t models; these can be identified by the A-LSD and SLIP lights on the tachometer.

The RB25DE and RB25DET engines also became equipped with NVCS (variable inlet cam phasing). NVCS equipped RB's have a bulge on the front of the cam cover. To celebrate their 40th anniversary, Nissan introduced a very rare 4-door GT-R. Two versions of the 4-door GT-R were available from Nissan's subsidiaries: the first was produced by Autech, and the second was a joint Autech/Nismo project.

An R33 based wagon was released in September 1996, called the Stagea. It had a different body style than the R33 and R34 and (with the exception of the RS FOUR & Autech variants) was only available with an automatic transmission. A common modification on the Stagea is to fit it with an R34 skyline front, in effect making a 4-door R34 wagon. The Stagea is the only four-wheel-drive manual-transmission Nissan on the R33 platform with the RB25DET engine. Presumably, a 5-speed 4WD Skyline equipped with an RB25DET would have been too close in performance to the much more expensive GT-R. There was also an Autech Stagea, the 260RS released with full GT-R running gear, the RB26DETT engine, body kit, 17" BBS style alloys, GT-R instrumentation, and manual transmission.


10th Generation (R34) (1998–2002)Edit

NISSAN~2

In May 1998, the EN34, HR34, ER34 and BNR34 marked the introduction of the more fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly RB25DET NEO engine. The RB20E engine was discontinued in the R34 base model (GT), and the RB20DE, after last being used in the R32 Skyline, was reintroduced in updated NEO guise. The R34 GT powered by the RB20DE NEO, coupled with a 5-speed gearbox, became the most fuel-efficient straight-6 Skyline to date (of any shape). " The 4-speed automatic transmission available on some models in the previous two shapes were discontinued. In its place, Nissan produced a 4-speed Tiptronic transmission for all of the automatic versions (Except the base 2.0L, which has a standard 5-speed gearbox). Only the GT-T coupe variant was sold in New Zealand and Hong Kong from 2000 and 1997 respectively. They were the only two countries besides Japan that sold the R34 GT-T model Skylines new. The Nissan Skyline rivals are the Toyota Supra, Acura NSX and the Mazda RX-7. If it were to make it to the US, it would have had rivalries with the Ford Mustang and Chevrolet Camaro.

11th Generation (V35) (2001-2006)Edit

800px-NISSAN SKYLINE COUPE V35

The Fifth generation was introduced in 2001 and unlike its predecessor, it does not have the GT-R version. It is sold as Infiniti G35 in USA.

TriviaEdit

  • A R32 was featured in the Japanese manga and anime series Initial D driven by Takeshi Nakazato
  • It was featured in the Japanese arcade game Wangan Midnight R Maximum Tune
  • It featured in many Video games including most of the Gran Turismo games, Need for Speed Underground and Underground 2 and Forza Motorsport.
  • A fictional version, the Nakamura Ikusa GT has appeared in the game Burnout Paradise.
  • It was featured in both "The Fast and the Furious" and "2 Fast 2 Furious" sequels.
  • Though most people state that the Skyline was never imported to North America due to safety standards, fans argue that it was because of the fear of competition from similar cars. 

Design quirks and odditiesEdit

Refer to any pop-culture tidbits about the vehicle in this section.

It also had an appearance in fast and furious: Tokyo drift. (R33) and the video game Juiced 2

According to the Herald Sun, a 1991 Nissan Skyline GT-R is regarded as a modern collectable. The car, when new priced at $110,000 when new can be had for $13,400 to $16,500 AUD.

AwardsEdit

List out notable awards that the model has recieved while in production. Boldface the company or orgainization that gives out the award, and Italicize the name of the award.

See alsoEdit

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